Mom, I broke Metabolism!
There should be an epigraph, but it is not!
As these two lines replace 40 sheets on the subject.
Good day, my broad-bones friend, today we will analyze your metabolism personally, I know that you have it slowed down, I know that you have a genetic predisposition to weight gain, and you also have a wide bone, a good soul and a deep inner world.
As usual, to complete the picture, we start with a boring theory and smoothly move on to the particulars. A world of hopelessness and despair awaits you, in general, everything as you love.
So those who believe that there should be a lot of good people, stock up on popcorn, the rest with patience, the release will be boring, but informative.
Here we have the video version:
Popular wisdom says that those who have a FAST (good) metabolism can eat a lot and not get fat, and those who have SLOW (bad), even looking at a cookie, gain weight. And it can also be broken, i.e. was fast, huyaks – broke, became slow, that’s bad luck! And every thinner with experience seeks to restore it, accelerate, improve, etc..
We take the dictionary and look what METABOLISM is:
(from the Greek. μεταβολή – “transformation, change”), or EXCHANGE OF SUBSTANCES – a set of chemical reactions that occur in a living organism to maintain life.
And if we wanted to study it better for the purpose of manipulation, then we would delve into lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, xenobiotics and oxidative phosphorylation, nucleotides and coenzymes, etc., etc. BUT we don’t need this, it’s me So…. scare. We only need to know that
Metabolism is the Exchange of Substances (OM) for the maintenance of life.
Metabolism – what is it? To put it primitively, various substances are constantly created (anabolism) and destroyed (catabolism) in our body, as fitness trainers and nutritionists usually explain, and doctors say:
Dissimilation – decomposition, breakdown of nutrients.
Assimilation – synthesis, creation and assimilation of new substances by the body.
Moreover, these processes are interconnected, go parallel to each other and all life.
Each person who is on a diet for a long time or is engaged in a certain type of physical activity comes to the conclusion that, subject to the same conditions as before, this does not bring any results, we began to spend less calories, i.e. our metabolism “slowed down”, we broke it through a period of starvation and improper training, aerobics or cardio, for example 🙂 .
Good guys always come to the rescue (like me or in white coats) with their methods of restoring a broken metabolism. Let’s see what kind of girl is this metabolism that constantly breaks down and how to handle it so that everything grows together.
THEORY OF METABOLISM
In the process of our parasitism, we constantly spend Energy. All energy or calories spent is the TOTAL calorie expenditure or total energy consumption, which is usually divided into two parts:
The main (consumption) Exchange (BMR / RMR) – the amount of energy needed to ensure normal functioning, so that we live and parasitize. This is the very metabolism that we want to promote!
This energy is spent on the processes of cell metabolism, blood circulation, respiration, secretion, maintaining body temperature, the functioning of vital nerve centers of the brain, providing HOMEOSTASIS, and the constant secretion of endocrine glands and bla bla bla. In general, a bunch of all sorts of not interesting, but necessary things.
and ADDITIONAL COSTS.
Here is a field for activity …
This may include:
1. The thermal effect of food (TEF), if in Russian – the dynamic action of food – the increase in energy consumption of the body due to the intake, digestion and assimilation of food. This means that part of the calories we consume goes to the assimilation of these same calories.
Proteins – 20-30% Carbohydrates 5-10%, Fats 2-3%
That is why protein diets give faster results..
2. Physical energy costs, ie energy that we spend on physical activity.
Catching up with a neighbor — running away from a neighbor’s dog, looking for a gift for February 23 — trying to take revenge on March 8, lifting heavy objects — making our husband lift heavy objects (dear, why don’t you carry me in your arms? …), we go to work waiting Friday, try prove to everyone that they are wrong, etc..
With all the variety of options for waste of energy, I would divide them into two parts:
Household Power Consumption: Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis, NEAT.
Training energy consumption. (expenditure on the exercises themselves (mechanical work (TEE thermal effect from physical exercises), excess post-exercise oxygen consumption or EPOC, metabolic effect, heat production, protein synthesis, glycogen resynthesis, and other post-workout effects.)
So, if we rewrite the first law of thermodynamics, taking into account the above, we get this picture
Depending on which part of the equation is greater, so you look i.e. ENERGY body reserves are changing.
What are the energy reserves of the body:
CARBOHYDRATES. Stored in the body as glycogen. There are two places to store them. Liver – Hepatic glycogen is used to maintain a constant level of sugar in the blood, and its supply is limited by the capsule of the organ, approximately 100-120gr or 5% of the total body weight. Muscles – Muscle glycogen – makes up 1% of muscle mass, used for physical work. Liver glycogen cannot be used by muscles and vice versa.
On any diet, glycogen reserves are reduced, but it is impossible to completely exhaust them, neither physical exercise nor hunger.
PROTEINS. The most valuable resource for use as fuel, but with prolonged physical exertion, 5-10% of the energy can be covered by amino acids. With a calorie deficit, part of the protein is also used to produce glucose and energy, and the larger the deficit, the greater the degree. By the word protein, I mean not only our muscles with you, but also the protein of internal organs, blood protein, connective and bone tissues, etc..
It is very difficult and energy-consuming to store protein, specific conditions are required, an excess of calories for protein synthesis and the construction of cellular structures. Therefore, spending protein is always easier and more fun than storing.
FATS. They are stored in lipocytes and, as you may have noticed, the body ALWAYS prefers the accumulation of fats, rather than carbohydrates and proteins, there are a number of reasons for this:
Fats are twice as high in calories as proteins and carbohydrates, which means higher energy value.
The carbohydrate reserve is limited by the size of the carbohydrate depot and cannot be increased without impairment of organ functions. The fat supply is not limited in any way, just look at the sumo wrestlers or look through the Guinness Book of Records, where there will be figures for body weight for 600 kg.
Fat is deposited very quickly, protein synthesis takes a lot of time and requires certain conditions.
Spending glycogen and protein is easy; fat oxidation is a complex process.
All this leads to the fact that the energy reserves of the body will change, mainly due to changes in adipose tissue. Pichalka.
THEORY OF BODY TYPES
According to legend, people with a “FAST” metabolism have no problems with the first beginning of thermodynamics, and all the points we have examined follow a different scenario. In medicine, there are certain terms to explain this, and they rest against various types of human constitution..
There are two classifications of E. Kretschmer and W. Sheldon, you most likely know the classification of Mr. Sheldon: Endomorph, Mesomorph, Ectomorph.
Most people know this classification because of differences in external characteristics, although ALL classification affects temperament and psychological characteristics..
Looking at the type of physique, you can determine the dependencies of this person, smart guys also came up with such a characteristic as TEMPERAMENT (sanguine, choleric …, etc.), but all these are cucumbers from one garden, only with different names.
Why such clever guys connected the structure of a person with his temperament and behavior, which is common?
There is a popular saying: There should be many good people. Big ones are good-natured, and small ones are harmful and evil. This is easily explained by the hormonal background. The main sculptors of our body during its growth and maturation are hormones, and it is they that affect our mental and emotional state.
ENDOMORPHE: (digestive type, analogue of the Picnic according to Kretschmer)
Sex hormones predominate, thyroid activity is reduced. During puberty, under the influence of sex hormones, growth zones close earlier, a person does not grow up, but can be wide.
BODY TYPE: Weak physique with excess body fat. It is characterized by roundness, plumpness, the presence of a large abdomen, fat on the shoulders and hips, a round head, undeveloped muscles.
CHARACTER: love for comfort, addiction to food, love for friendly feasts, friendliness for people, focus on public opinion, tolerance, slowed down nervous system, in general, a good person, who is many.
SPORT ADAPTATION: Low. There is a tendency to a set of muscle tissue along with fat due to the increased ability to absorb nutrients.
MESOMORPH: (muscle type, analogue of Athletics according to Kretschmer)
The perfect combination of thyroid hormones, genital and growth hormones.
BODY TYPE: With broad shoulders and chest, strong arms and legs, massive head. Good health. Large muscle mass with minimal fat.
CHARACTER: These are people prone to physical activity, energetic, risk-averse, distinguished by their courage, noisy behavior and low sensitivity, they did not cry on the film “Titanic” and did not go to “50 shades of gray”, good concentration, high pain threshold .
SPORTS ADAPTATION: Sprinter. Maximum effort for short periods of time..
EKTOMORF: (brain type, analogue of Asthenik according to Kretschmer).
(Ectomorph with a cloak was not)))
This type has less sex hormones, more growth hormone and thyroid hormones.
BODY TYPE: An elongated face, with a high forehead, long limbs, a narrow chest and abdomen, lack of subcutaneous fat.
CHARACTER: Propensity to solitude, to reasoning, sociophobia, quiet voice and non-standard behavior. Great activity of the nervous system, which helps them lose weight by increasing / NEAT /.
SPORTS ADAPTATION: Marathon runner. Good tolerance of long and not intense physical exertion, because plastic processes (building a new protein, for example) are worse than energy, which is why it is difficult for them to pump.
Naturally, there are no pure representatives of this classification; we all hang out somewhere in the middle. For example, between the endomorph (to a greater extent) and the mesomorph (to a lesser extent), it sometimes seems to me that I have absorbed the worst of them. The sprout zones have closed, but the meat has not grown. It’s a shame.
Please note that the pictures are always men, because women have a slightly more complicated environment with hormones and the distribution of receptors for them, the distribution of fat deposits may have more options, which gives rise to a larger number of figures
For example, in fitness, A-O-H-X-I-shaped types of figures in women are usually discussed. And nutritionists are divided into Apples, Pears and more horseradish understand that ….
These classifications were described quite a while ago, in 1947, and they were considered without interference with the “natural” course of things, no loads and specials. nutrition. So you will not find your exact characteristics, only a cross between a bulldog and a rhino.
But how did these types of addition form? Why are some lucky and others not? This is due to the evolutionary development of man in his environment. No one will argue that African Americans have more melanin in their skin than Russians, and Yakuts have higher acidity in their stomach than others, this is their natural feature, which was formed by external conditions.
In Africa, natural skin protection is necessary, and in Yakutia, a tendency to digest large amounts of protein and fats. Also the rest, only less pronounced. For example, all my ancestors lived in Siberia, it is not surprising that I have a tendency to gain fat, since we have 8 months a year – this is winter and the food is seasonal. External conditions create our uniqueness and fitness, which is transmitted to us from our ancestors.
Therefore, it is not necessary to whine, possessing those characteristics that you DO NOT NEED right now. These characteristics are “natural” and worked correctly in natural conditions, but they are NOT REQUIRED by you.
Any type of physique is neither good nor bad, it all depends on how you use it, what color you give it.
For example, there are people who believe that money is EVIL and BAD, and others that it is GOOD and GOOD.
But this is only a certain matter, the color of which is given by the person who uses it, i.e. the energy or matter in his hands will be GOOD or EVIL depending on the person himself and his actions, and not the type of this matter or energy.
Some 50 years ago, a person walked an average of about 40km per day, and now? We have changed the natural diet for cheap calories. We have changed the natural conditions of physical activity – by means of transportation. But we can’t change the work of our hormonal system so easily, and we complain about the CORRECT work of our body.
In any situation, you get a body that ensures the fulfillment of all its obligations, in order to survive and dominate.
If during the day you need to wake up – get to work – to sit there for 8-10 hours on the ass – and back home on the sofa. You have enough body with a minimum of muscle tissue, because it is the most metabolically active and the body gets rid of it throughout life. With a certain amount of fat, because fatty acids that enter the bloodstream are not in demand, and will be stored throughout life. With weak joints and ligaments. With a minimal amount of mitochondria, with insulin resistance, etc. YOUR BODY, whatever it may be, MANAGES the duties assigned to it. What else do you need, stink?
And if you change the conditions and the external environment?
Let’s say you have to walk 15km every day after work, and the faster, the more you sleep.
Your body will begin to increase the number of mitochondria in order to more efficiently use energy from fat. Fatty acids in the blood will begin to be utilized, and deposition will slow down, after training protein synthesis of working muscle groups will occur, and the synthesis of spent glycogen.
Have you heard such an interesting word REGENERATION? We grow nails, hair, at least on the ass, skin is renewed, etc. The body needs about 7 years to completely renew, completely replace all tissues, but every 7 years we are worse and worse, and all because the external conditions and your needs DO NOT CHANGE!
MAN WITH “FAST” METABOLISM:
– Adequate balance of teroid hormones. (The less they are, the more fat in the body and the more sluggish nervous system. The more they are, the less muscle in the body.)
– High levels of lipolytic hormones and receptor sensitivity to them. For men, this is testosterone, for women, estradiol and somatropin.
– High sensitivity to insulin and leptin (suppresses appetite)
– Active work of the autonomic nervous system, etc..
MAN WITH A “SLOW” METABOLISM:
I’ll immediately note here that if you were a thin child in your childhood or you remember being slender, in 99% of cases you led yourself to the “SLOW” metabolism on your own, making the wrong choice between WANT and NEED.
– Low amount of teroid hormones – entails a low base metabolism. This is not bad, you just need to eat according to needs, not according to opportunities.
– Low amount of anabolic hormones. A decrease with age occurs in everyone, it can be slowed down or compensated.
– Insensitivity of tissues to insulin, leptin and improper work of mediators affecting eating behavior. This problem has been buzzing for years; it itself does not appear..
– Reduced number of necessary adrenergic receptors, and imbalance of neurotransmitters.
You can intimidate and confuse you for a long time, in order to develop helplessness in you and show the hopelessness of the situation, lead you to a snag and carefully manipulate or motivate someone who likes what, BUT it’s not good to deprive the government of work, so everything will be simple:
SIMPLY, NOT DIFFICULT
A person with a slow metabolism, eats more – moves less.
A person with a fast metabolism, eats less – moves more.
Are you upset that everything is so simple? I understand your resentment, now horseradish you will shed your problems on metabolism.
– Even if it seems to you that your thin girlfriend at the corporate party, ate like a horse from all basins, and the extra KG passed to you. She still compensates for this with motor activity (NEAT), because they danced with her, and not with you 🙂 and the subsequent lack of appetite (hormones work).
– Even if it seems to you that you used to lose 2000 kcal, but now you can’t lose 1200 kcal. It is enough to set you a border of 1400 kcal and beat you with electric shock in fat, for every extra calorie, as you immediately begin to lose weight.
There is nothing difficult for an endomorph to be slim, knowing his lazy (energy-saving) nature and the desire to eat everything so that the enemy does not get it. You just need to adjust for this annoying coefficient by external conditions and your good habits.
The only problem with these body types is the ectomorph to gain muscle. Fitness trainers call them Hardgainers and the problem is that protein synthesis is a bit more complicated than lipolysis..
In any situation, you get a body that ensures the fulfillment of all its obligations in order to survive and dominate.
– After work, you can also have dinner on the sofa with a newspaper, or you can take the children and go to the rink, thereby increasing NEAT.
– You can, after working on the Internet, at a forum of a weighty community to friends in misfortune, see who has once again broken and gobbled up, or you can go to the gym and utilize fatty acids in the blood.
– You can read a book about dietology for a long time, or you can run through the park, and listen to the book on the player, oh yes … you listen to music.
You can whine for a long time that I come home from work tired and no strength, literally crawl on my eyebrows into the apartment, but you can think about why this happens.
You present certain requirements to your body no more and no less, therefore you have no more and no less energy, enough to crawl home. If it suddenly turns out that you suddenly needed to go in for sports or learn languages, the body will find energy for this, but no more. What kind of load we present to ourselves, we adapt to that. You will save, forces will become less and less, you will spend completely and a little bit more on your teeth, it will increase, in any case it is up to you to tell your family a fairy tale that you are not tired today or go and do it.
THE TALE OF BROKEN METABOLISM ….
So … a ballad about a broken metabolism affects the sidelines of fitness and consists in the fact that if you use a small amount of calories for a long, long, long time and do many, many, many (cardio (aerobic)) exercises, the metabolism will slow down and the person will begin to gain weight back, just mentally sorting through the images of food.
I myself often sing this song too, because it is easier to give a farewell warning to frightened people). Yes, and this theory is rewritten in all modern fitness training programs. Let’s clarify this unclear question.
A broken metabolism ballad has a bunch of varieties:
– This is genetically so with me …
Although there is no obesity gene, and at the genetic level, a system configured for obesity is not transmitted. But other parameters are passed. Therefore, only tendency is possible, for example, a lower concentration of receptors, less sensitivity, not an ideal balance of hormones, etc. POSITION, but everything else is up to you.
– This is my hormonal …
And the diagnosis of endocrine disease is not called, the hormone is not called specifically. Just hormonal, which itself somehow violated the law of thermodynamics.
– It’s a bone. This is by inheritance, We all have …
Moreover, for some reason no one says that parents pass on the wrong eating habits to their children, hence “all of these”.
Remember, I said in a previous article that a person is intuitively fenced off from SUCCESS and gravitates to SUCCESS. The fans of the winning team always scream WE won, and the losers – THEY lost. It’s exactly the same … It’s metabolism or hormones …. This is not Me, this is IT!
How does metabolism slow down:
Consider the process on a fictional character – Anastasia Bzdonskaya. Once upon a time there lived a young girl Nastya, 170cm tall, until she accidentally discovered that she was already 45 and weighed only 80kg. Given the average calorie intake, the consumption for the content of 1 kg of live weight is 30 kcal, the supporting diet for a vskidka was 2400 kcal on average. Naturally, fasting days of 1000 kcal were replaced by loading days on the occasion of the funeral of the beloved cat, which she crushed, and other holidays, of which a great many on the calendar of the citizen of the Russian Federation.
One fine day, which every representative of the “weaker” sex, she decided to lose weight. Having read clever articles and fished out the minimum daily amount of calories of 1200kcal (by the way, who invented it?), Mocking herself on a treadmill, or yoga, or Nordic walking, or Pilates, or jumping in front of the TV, she lost weight up to 70kg. Hooray. Let’s figure out what’s with Metabolism..
– Cut the amount of food by 1200kcal, which means that TEF decreased by 120kcal.
– The weight decreased by 10 kg, which means the number of kcal per its content decreased by 300 kcal. (30kcal per 1 kg)
You can safely say that the main metabolism has slowed down, right? Nope. It works in exactly the same way, just according to the law of physics, body weight decreased, and therefore the energy for its content decreased. This can’t even be called an adaptation to the diet..
When there is a sharp decrease in calorie content, the body perceives this as a lack of food sources, and stimulates the excitation of the central nervous system through certain hormones, in order to search for food and survive.
Remember the first weeks when you decided to lose weight? Cutting off carbohydrates and depleting glycogen has led to a change in the water-salt balance and your weight has DECREASEDLY decreased. A number of hormones stimulated the central nervous system for search activity, and strength training provided the release of endorphins and adrenaline. Which in total led to a great mood, motivation and endless faith in a good future … Yeah, well … not in my story 🙂
What happens next? If you continue the weight loss epic, then at the hormonal level:
– The level of a hormone that stimulates the formation and secretion of thyroid hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone decreases. – The activity of the sympathetic and CN systems decreases. Become less active, less emotional (except for aggression), apathy appears, not a desire to move.
– The level of sex hormones decreases: testosterone (estrogen). The level of the factor releasing growth hormone decreases – these are LIPOLITICAL HORMONES. Reduces fat consumption, libido disappears, etc..
– The level of cortisol rises (enhances the breakdown of protein and stimulates the production of glucose from the protein in the liver), hunger and appetite increase; in addition, it retains water and causes leptin resistance.
– The level of insulin decreases (which is an anti-catabolic hormone and prevents muscle breakdown), and new protein synthesis does not occur due to a lack of energy.
– There are changes in the levels of leptin (enhances hunger), ghrelin, peptide YY, corticoliberin, dopamine (pleasure disappears from something)
– Neuropeptide Y is produced (which is produced under conditions of hunger, that is, less leptin – more than neuropeptide Y, that is, the brain gives the command “Eat or LET”).
This process, of course, takes some time, and does not occur instantly, that is, there is a certain gap between the changes in all these hormones and the reaction of the body.
This is a small fraction of the processes that occur when calorie deficiency.
ALL THESE ADAPTATION CHANGES ARE FOR TWO BASIC GOALS:
FIRST: This is a slowdown in the rate of fat burning, which should allow you to survive as long as possible. For this, the body also reduces all types of activity that require energy. This includes protein synthesis, reproductive and immune functions; because what is the point in pleasures, emotions and reproduction, when you can’t feed yourself?
All these hormonal changes, starting with a drop in leptin levels (with a decrease in fat mass), are the main reasons why men lose their sex drive (and some opportunities), and women stop the cycle when they reach a very low percentage of fat / or are on a strict diet.
All these beautiful boys and girls in magazines and on stages, as well as my peak form, have nothing to do with a HEALTHY LIFESTYLE! Everyone must determine what is acceptable to him and be prepared to bear responsibility for it. I understand that all the ladies want to be like dry bikinis, although girls of reproductive age usually walk with strollers, and bikinis with dogs))).
SECOND: The main task for your body is to replenish fat stores as soon as possible when calories are available again. “Slowing down” the metabolic rate and improving the ability to accumulate fat combine to promote the return of body fat when you start eating again.
The combination of signals sent by leptin, ghrelin, insulin, glucose and a host of other hormones (cholestokinin, glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2, bombesin and many others) turns into hunger and appetite, you constantly think about food, read recipes, post them in your social networks etc.
Is this a slowdown in metabolism? NOT-E-E-EETTT!!!!
This is an adaptation to external conditions. The body adapts, adjusting energy consumption.
Suppose you had 4 workouts per week and you spent 500 kcal each, i.e. if you count for a week we get 285 kcal per day. And now you have slowed down, and sometimes miss a visit to the gym. It is so? For minus you have about 200kcal per day.
In the same way, your household calorie consumption is reduced, you start to move less, show less emotion, etc. Prof. athletes who periodically use drying notice that the body turns off emotions, because they are very energy consuming. Petrosyan is not so funny, and at the funeral is not too sad, the condition is NO. Decrease in household activity can reach up to 500kcal. But take an average of 200 kcal.
So, let’s calculate how much calorie consumption per day has decreased:
120 + 300 + 85 + 200 = 705kcal.
She began to spend 705 kcal less, and the daily deficit is 495 kcal.
WAS 80kg – consumption of 2400kcal per day was cut to 1200kcal = (energy deficit of 1200kcal daily)
BECAME 70kg – consumption of 1200kcal per day = deficit (1200-705) = energy deficit of 495 kcal (3 times less)
You can even calculate the BASIC Substances Exchange according to different formulas, (errors up to 23%) choose:
It was bred in 1919. More accurate when using physical. loads:
Calculation of the basal metabolic rate (SBI) according to the Harris-Benedict formula:
Women: SBI = 655.1 + 9.6 * body weight (kg) + 1.85 * height (cm) – 4.68 * age (years)
Men: SBI = 66.47 + 13.75 * body weight (kg) + 5.0 * height (cm) – 6.74 * age (years)
Substitute our values (Anastasia):
SBI = 655.1 + 9.6 * 70 (kg) + 1.85 * 170 (cm) – 4.68 * 45 (years) = 1431 kcal per day with a weight of 70 kg
Muffin Geor Formula
The Muffin-Geor (or Mifflin-San Geor) core exchange formula is a modern calculation method. The formula was deduced in 2005, and according to the American Dietetic Association (ADA), today it allows you to most accurately calculate how many calories a healthy adult body spends at rest.
Calculation of the basic metabolism according to the Mifflin-San Geor formula:
SBI = 9.99 * weight (kg) + 6.25 * height (cm) – 4.92 * age – 161
For a man:
SBI = 9.99 * weight (kg) + 6.25 * height (cm) – 4.92 * age + 5
Our Option: BOO = 9.99 * 70 (kg) + 6.25 * 170 (cm) – 4.92 * 45 – 161 = 1379.4 per day with a weight of 70 kg
There are also factors to consider:
The amount of physical activity
Daily energy consumption
Minimum load (sedentary work)
SBI * 1.2
A little daily activity and light exercises 1-3 times a week
SBI * 1.375
Training 4-5 times a week (or moderate work)
SBI * 1.4625
Intensive workouts 4-5 times a week
SBI * 1.550
SBI * 1.6375
Intensive daily workouts or workouts 2 times a day
SBI * 1.725
Hard physical work or intense workouts 2 times a day
SBI * 1.9
The resulting number is the number of calories you can use per day to maintain weight..
Suppose our subject is completely depressed and scored for training, then we take the minimum coefficient of 1.2 and get OOB 1655-1717, i.e. decrease from the initial 2400 kcal, by 682-745 kcal i.e. 23-24kcal per 1kg of weight. We “by eye” turned 705kcal, which, in principle, next to.
Is it possible in such a situation to further reduce the Main or Basic OM? It is possible by reducing body weight. And if you leave the body weight unchanged, can further adaptation or even breakdown of our Metabolism occur, in which OOV decreases BELOW than the calories we consume, a person will stop losing weight, and weight will begin to grow?
The Minnesota experiment, which was conducted in 1944 by Dr. Ansel Keyes, was the most significant and longest in this regard..
During World War II in the States, Asia and Europe, the main mortality was not from war, but from hunger..
His main goal was to help victims of famine in Europe, the USA and Asia at the end of World War II..
The research plan of Ansel Kis was very simple: first, bring the subjects to a state close to exhaustion, and then return them to a normal diet.
The study found that the basal metabolic rate at rest decreased by 40% and yielded savings of 600 kcal. Here is the state of complete rest:
those. to fulfill this condition requires prolonged hunger for at least 6 months and rest for 24 hours.
In the case of manifestation of household activity, the decrease was 15-20% i.e. saving a maximum of 300kcal. In other sources, the maximum rate of metabolic slowdown was 15% -20%.
ALL the rest of the “slowdown” of metabolism occurs due to a decrease in body weight.
In response to prolonged hunger, our OM adapts to savings in order to survive this period..
The activity of the autonomic nervous system, namely the Sympathetic part, as well as the central nervous system, is reduced. This event reduces energy loss due to activity and emotions, and since the household part is 14-18 hours a day, unlike 30min training, the savings are significant.
BUT, this is not a breakdown! This is an adaptation
Metabolism works as it should be, and pointing at it with a fat finger, accusing it of a wide bone, is impossible.
How much do you think a person is able to SLOW down his metabolism? In the human body there are no effective mechanisms for this function. We do not dive for several hours, we do not burrow in the sand and do not hibernate. With a big stretch, you can take 20% of the main metabolism for slowing the metabolism, and then in the case of prolonged hunger. By “hunger” we mean real hunger when there is really nothing to eat, and not when left without fries and potatoes. This is what a 20% slowdown looks like:
But this Slowdown is ADAPTATION to external conditions, and the metabolic rate is the same. Chemical reaction rate unchanged.
If the thought suddenly flashes that I’m something special, the metabolism of everyone is individual. It’s buulshit. What is it individual?
Individuality is an interesting thing to become individual, you need to work on it – to create your own uniqueness and through your actions to be an individual, but most do not want to do a dick, but, bitch, is “individuality”. At least in some ways.
Everyone has the same metabolism!
Calories from nutrients are the same for everyone, lipolysis follows the same scenario, thermogenesis too. And the speeds are the same for everyone. Do not la la, you have the same metabolism. The difference can be in hormones and factors, all other “thin” settings are absolutely not essential for such a banal event as getting rid of adipose tissue.
There are certain types of temperament and constitution, but there are no constitutionally fat or skinny ones, the principles of metabolic work are the same for everyone, and the fact that we look different is the work of everyone, independent use and application of our capabilities.
If you still think that your metabolism is broken, then this one has a definite diagnosis and this is referred to as a Substance Exchange disease. For example, your protein synthesis (hemoglobin) is impaired or ketone bodies accumulate, such people have long been diagnosed with this and they are losing weight problems.
Let’s think, what calorie content do women want to lose weight? Someone calculates according to the formula, someone empirically, someone 1200kcal, someone not lower than the base metabolism, etc., a lot of methods, but you just imagine the number! Submitted?
There were 3 periods in the Menissot experiment, of which fasting lasted 6 months. The fasting was 1570 kcal, 50 g of protein, 30 g of fat. The only condition to maintain the previous mode of life and to pass at least 35km.
This is how a person looks at 1570 kcal for 6 months:
Modern methods use even less high-calorie diets. Ladies complain that the metabolism has stopped for a long period of diets, and fitness experts nod, smiling fervently, and offering their programs for promoting metabolism.
How can it be that a person spends more than he eats, but does not lose weight?
I call this effect FALSE-CRAZY and PROVOCATION.
I saw 150 kg of men, according to whom, the diet was less than that of the ballerinas, but for some reason the weight did not decrease.
In most cases, we do not correctly estimate the consumption and expenditure of calories. A person with a “slowed down” metabolism, and all ectomorphs without exception, in numerous experiments showed that they can eat up more than 2-3 times the declared calories in their eyes, while reducing household activity. In this case, no training will help, because the main energy consumption goes exactly to the household component, and not going to the gym.
In the Menissot experiment, the experimental subject was rolled off 1570 kcal and not calories anymore. No fasting days, no protein-carbohydrate windows, no – I’m working out or earned it. Got? Is free! And there was not a single case in which the metabolism slowed down to such an extent that a person stopped losing weight.
A study was conducted on this mythical phenomenon of “I’m not eating and getting fat”:
They took 10 girls and conducted a special course in which they taught how to count calories and keep a food diary.
Then, for only 2 weeks, they asked me to keep a diary, counting how much they eat. They were warned that their measurements would be checked every day. Only 2 measurements were taken, the method of “double-labeled water” is one of the exact methods of Calorimetry (a method of instrumental measurement and assessment of thermal effects)
Individual calorie requirement for weight maintenance
How many people actually consume
We got this picture:
Black columns – daily calorie intake for each of 10 women.
Shaded – how many calories were counted on average in diaries.
Entire column (white) – how many calories did they REALLY consume.
9 out of 10 fat from sunshine and holy spirits.
Please note that the first issue distorted its reports 3 times, at 2200kcal. 2, 6 and 7, who wrote about consuming less than 1000 calories per day, actually consumed, respectively, 2700, 2600 and 3100 calories.
And these specially trained people, under supervision, for a short period of time, made such mistakes. This is not on purpose, as if there is no deception, it is all connected with our eating behavior, psychology, orthorexia side effects, etc..
Metabolism or metabolism is “a set of chemical reactions that occur in a living organism to maintain life”.
And all these hundreds of thousands of chemical reactions must go exactly as programmed by Nature. Not faster and not slower.
Bad OB is when something goes wrong.
A fast and slow OM is a completely different topic. It is about the speed of use of those substances that are ingested with food.
Forget about fast or slow OM, that metabolism slows down and needs to be accelerated. It will ALWAYS adapt to external conditions, and its effect on a change in the energy reserves of the body will always work CORRECTLY, which in the end is not essential in getting rid of EXTRA fat reserves. OM should not be fast or slow, but NORMAL, i.e. HEALTHY, without violation.
Here is the very epigraph. which should be at the beginning:
Spoiled metabolism is not a diagnosis
and not a state of health – this is a lifestyle (s)
That’s all I wanted to say. See you on the other side of the network cable. Brin.
1. Oleg Tern http://www.healthlabs.ru
2. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Dec; 95 (12): 1393-400; quiz 1401-2. (Unexplained disturbance in body weight regulation: diagnostic outcome assessed by doubly labeled water and body composition analyses in obese patients reporting low energy intakes.)
3. L. McDonald. Another Look at Metabolic Damage.
4. L. McDonald. Determining the maximum dietary deficit for fat loss.
5. Minnesota Starvation Experiment (Biology of human hunger) Ancel Benjamin Keys